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#### Seminar at the

#### Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions

#### Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

*Organizers*

#### Philippe G. LeFloch (Paris)

#### Jacques Smulevici (Orsay)

#### Jérémie Szeftel (Paris)

**Dates of the Seminar: **

**January 30, February 27, March 20, April 10, May 22, June 6, June 19, July 4**

#### Monday January 30, 2017

*room 15/25-104*

#### 14h Georgios Moschidis (Princeton, USA)

**The scalar wave equation on general asymptotically flat spacetimes. Stability and instability results**

Abstract. We will examine how certain geometric conditions on general asymptotically flat spacetimes (M,g) are related to stability or instability properties of solutions to the scalar wave equation on M. First, in the case when (M,g) possesses an event horizon with positive surface gravity and an ergo-region which is sufficiently small in terms of the near-horizon geometry, we will prove a logarithmic decay result for solutions to the wave equation, provided a uniform energy boundedness estimate holds. This result, applicable also in the absence of a horizon and an ergo-region, generalizes a result of Burq for the wave equation on the complement of an arbitrary compact obstacle in flat space. We will then apply the methods developed for the proof of this result in obtaining a rigorous proof of Friedman’s ergosphere instability for scalar waves in the case when (M,g) possesses an ergo-region and no event horizon.

#### 15h30 Xavier Lachaume (Tours)

**The constraint equations of scalar tensor and Lovelock theories**

Abstract. The ADM decomposition is the projection of the Einstein field equations on a spacelike foliation of the spacetime. It gives the constraint equations that must necessarily be satisfied by a riemannian metric and a 2-form to be the initial data of an Einstein spacetime. In this talk, we shall introduce some modified gravity theories: the scalar-tensor and Lovelock theories, and see how they behave under the ADM decomposition. We shall examine their constraint equations, and solve them in particular cases. This involves the study of whether a certain function of the elementary symmetric polynomials is concave or not.

#### Monday February 27, 2017

*room 15/16-309*

#### 14h Mokdad Mokdad (Brest)

**Conformal scattering for Maxwell fields on Reissner-Nordstrøm-de Sitter spacetimes**

Abstract. The Reissner-Nordstrøm-de Sitter spacetime models a spherically symmetric charged and non-rotating black hole in the presence of a positive cosmological constant. Depending on the parameters of the metric, this spacetime can have up tothree distinct event horizons. In the case of three horizons, we develop a scattering theory for Maxwell fields using the conformal geometric approach initiated by Penrose and Friedlander and referred to as conformal scattering. The idea is that a complete scattering theory is equivalent to the well-posedness of the Goursat problem (characteristic Cauchy problem) at the null boundary of the conformal manifold. Decay estimates obtained by geometric energy inequalities are essential tools for closing the estimates that allow the construction of the scattering operator : their role is to prove that energy cannot accumulate at timelike infinity, which can be understood as a weak form of Huygens’ principle.

#### 15h30 Annalaura Stingo (Paris 13)

**Global existence and asymptotic behavior for small solutions to 1D quasi-linear cubic Klein-Gordon equations**

Abstract. Let u be a solution to a quasi-linear cubic Klein-Gordon equation, with smooth, small Cauchy data. It is known that, under a suitable condition on the nonlinearity, the solution is global-in-time for compactly supported Cauchy data. We prove that the result holds even when data are not compactly supported but only decay like 1/r at infinity, combining the method of Klainerman vector fields with a semiclassical normal forms method introduced by Delort. Moreover, we get a one-term asymptotic expansion for the solutions and establish a modified scattering property.

#### Monday March 20, 2017

*room 15/16-309*

#### 14h Dominic Dold (Cambridge, UK)

**Exponentially growing mode solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in Kerr-AdS spacetimes**

Abstract. We consider solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the black hole exterior of Kerr-AdS spacetimes. It is known that, if the spacetime parameters satisfy the Hawking-Reall bound, solutions (with Dirichlet boundary conditions at infinity) decay logarithmically. We shall present our recent result of the existence of exponentially growing mode solutions in the parameter range where the Hawking-Reall bound is violated. We will discuss various boundary conditions at infinity.

#### Monday April 10, 2017

*room 15/25-101*

#### 14h Bruno Premoselli (Bruxelles)

**Instability of focusing initial data sets in high dimensions**

Abstract. We will investigate blow-up properties for a class of initial data sets for the Einstein equations obtained from the conformal method in a scalar-field theory. In dimensions larger than 6, and when some stability conditions on the physics data are not satisfied, we will show that the conformal method produces blowing-up families of initial data sets. The proof of this result combines constructive variational methods with a priori asymptotic analysis blow-up techniques.

#### Monday May 22, 2017

*exceptionally taking place at IHES*

*and co-organized with S. Klainerman (Princeton)*

#### 14h Jan Sbierski (Cambridge, UK)

**The inextendibility of the Schwarzschild spacetime as a Lorentzian manifold with a continuous metric**

Abstract. The maximal analytic Schwarzschild spacetime is manifestly inextendible as a Lorentzian manifold with a twice continuously differentiable metric. In this talk I will describe how one proves the stronger statement that the maximal analytic Schwarzschild spacetime is inextendible as a Lorentzian manifold with a continuous metric. The investigation of low-regularity inextendibility criteria is motivated by the strong cosmic censorship conjecture in general relativity.

#### 15h30 Grigorios Fournodavlos (Cambridge, UK)

**Dynamics of the Einstein equations near a Schwarzschild singularity**

Abstract. We will discuss dynamical properties of the Schwarzschild interior, backwards and forwards (in time) with respect to the initial value problem for the Einstein vacuum equations.

#### Tuesday June 6, 2017

*room 15/16-309*

#### 14h Dejan Gajic (London)

**Precise asymptotics for the wave equation on stationary, asymptotically flat spacetimes**

Abstract. The late-time behaviour of solutions to the wave equation on a large class of asymptotically flat spacetimes does not conform to the strong Huygens principle. Instead, it is governed by polynomially decaying “tails”, as first discovered heuristically by Price. Their presence plays an important role in the study of singularities in black hole interiors. I will discuss a method for proving the precise leading-order asymptotics for the wave equation on these spacetimes and in the process I will introduce new energy decay estimates to obtain sharp decay rates that go beyond those obtained via traditional vector field methods. This talk is based on joint work with Yannis Angelopoulos and Stefanos Aretakis.

#### 15h30 Cécile Huneau (Grenoble)

**High frequency back reaction for the Einstein equations under polarized U(1) symmetry**

Abstract. It has been observed by physicists (Isaacson, Burnett, Green-Wald) that metric perturbations of a background solution, which are small amplitude but with high frequency yield at the limit to a non trivial contribution which corresponds to the presence of an energy impulsion tensor in the equation for the background metric. This non trivial contribution is of due to the nonlinearities in Einstein equations, which involve products of derivatives of the metric. It has been conjectured by Burnett that the only tensors which can be obtained this way are massless Vlasov, and it has been proved by Green and Wald that the limit tensor must be traceless and satisfy the dominant energy condition. The known exemples of this phenomena are constructed under symmetry reductions which involve two Killing fields and lead to an energy impulsion tensor which consists in at most two dust propagating in null directions. In this talk, I will explain our construction, under a symmetry reduction involving one Killing field, which lead to an energy impulsion tensor consisting in N dust fields propagating in arbitrary null directions. This is a joint work with Jonathan Luk (Stanford).

#### Monday June 19, 2017

*room 15/16-309*

#### 14h Elena Giorgi (Columbia)

**On the rigidity problem of black holes in general relativity**

Abstract. The rigidity problem in General Relativity consists in showing that an (electro)vacuum, asymptotically flat and stationary spacetime is isometric to Kerr(-Newman). The problem was solved for analytic manifolds by Hawking in the so called “no-hair theorem”. We overview the known results related to the rigidity problem for Ricci flat smooth manifolds. In the non-analytic case, Ionescu-Klainerman extended the Hawking Killing field along the horizon to the outer domain of dependence. This was done through a unique continuation procedure, relying on Carleman estimates. We generalize the result to the case of Einstein equation coupled with Maxwell equations. Finally, we summarize what is known in the case of degenerate horizons, which corresponds to the extremal Kerr.

#### Monday July 3, 2017

*exceptionally taking place at IHES*

*and co-organized with S. Klainerman (Princeton)*

#### 14h Steffen Aksteiner (Potsdam)

**From operator identities to symmetry operators**

Abstract. The hidden symmetry of the Kerr spacetime, encoded in its pair of conformal Killing-Yano tensors, implies hidden symmetries for various test fields on such a background. Starting from certain natural operator identities we derive two such symmetries of the linearized Einstein operator. The first one is of differential order four and the relation to the classical theory of Debye potentials as well as to the Chandrasekhar transformation will be explained. The second one is of differential order six and related to the separability of an integrability condition to the linearized Einstein equations — the Teukolsky equation. Advanced symbolic computer algebra tools for xAct were developed for this purpose and if time permits, I will give an overview on the current status.

#### 15h30 Arick Shao (London)

**Unique continuation of waves on asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetimes**

Abstract. In theoretical physics, it is often conjectured that a correspondence exists between the gravitational dynamics of asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes and a conformal field theory of their boundaries. In the context of classical relativity, one can attempt to rigorously formulate such a correspondence statement as a unique continuation problem for PDEs: Is an asymptotically AdS solution of the Einstein equations uniquely determined by its data on its conformal boundary at infinity? In this presentation, we establish a key step: we prove such a unique continuation result for wave equations on fixed asymptotically AdS spacetimes. In particular, we highlight the analytic and geometric features of AdS spacetime which enable this uniqueness result, as well as obstacles preventing such a result from holding in other cases. If time permits, we will also discuss some applications of this result toward symmetry extension and rigidity theorems.

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**_________________________________________**

#### Seminar at the

#### Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions

#### Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

*Organizers*

#### Philippe G. LeFloch (Paris)

#### Jacques Smulevici (Orsay)

#### Jérémie Szeftel (Paris)

This Fall: **October 10, November 21, and December 12, 2016**

#### Monday October 10, 2016

*room 15/25-104*

#### 14h Peter Hintz (Berkeley)

**Nonlinear stability of Kerr-de Sitter black holes**

**Abstract. **In joint work with András Vasy, we recently established the stability of the Kerr-de Sitter family of black holes as solutions of the initial value problem for the Einstein vacuum equations with positive cosmological constant, for small angular momenta but without any symmetry assumptions on the initial data. I will explain the general framework which enables us to deal systematically with the diffeomorphism invariance of Einstein’s equations, and thus how our solution scheme finds a suitable (wave map type) gauge within a carefully chosen finite-dimensional family of gauges; I will also address the issue of finding the mass and the angular momentum of the final black hole.

#### 15h30 Stefan Czimek (Paris)

**An extension procedure for the constraint equations**

**Abstract. **In this talk we present a new extension procedure for the maximal constraint equations of general relativity, motivated by applications to the Cauchy problem. Given a small solution on the unit ball, we can extend it to an asymptotically flat global solution. The main features are that our extension procedure does not need a gluing region, preserves regularity and works in weak regularity. For the proof, we use new methods to solve the prescribed divergence equation for the second fundamental form and the prescribed scalar curvature equation for the metric. We use the under-determinedness of the constraint equations to conserve regularity.

#### Monday November 21, 2016

*room 15/16-413*

#### 14h The-Cang Nguyen (Paris)

**Progress and recent results for the conformal equations**

**Abstract. **The presentation will be divided into two parts. First, I will introduce the conformal equations and present recent results for these equations as well as questions arising naturally. In a second part, I will talk about the “half-continuity method” and explain how to use this method for giving answers to the questions posed in the first part.

#### 15h30 Volker Schlue (Paris)

**On the nonlinear stability of expanding black hole cosmologies**

#### Monday December 12, 2016

*room 15/25-102*

#### 14h Michał Wrochna (Grenoble)

**The quantum stress-energy tensor and its intricate relationship with spacetime geometry**

**Abstract. **It is widely believed that at low energies, quantum gravity should yield an effective theory described by Einstein equations with a stress-energy tensor made of averaged fluctuations of quantum fields. The construction of that stress-energy tensor is however very problematic and its intricate dependence on spacetime geometry results in highly non-linear equations that possess no qualitative theory to date. In this talk I will review this problem as a motivation for improving the construction of linear Klein-Gordon quantum fields, and discuss recent progress that allows for a better control of the dependence on the spacetime metric (partly based on joint work with Christian Gérard).

#### 15h30 Guillaume Idelon-Riton (Regensburg)

**Some results about the scattering theory for the massive Dirac fields in the Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter space-time**

**Abstract. **I will first give a brief presentation of the Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter spacetime and of some of its geometrical properties that will concern us. Then I will present the massive Dirac equation in this space-time and first study the Cauchy problem which is not completely obvious since our spacetime is not globally hyperbolic. I will then give a result concerning the asymptotic completeness for these fields. By means of a Mourre estimate, it is possible to obtain that the minimal velocity for these fields is 1. I will then show that our dynamics behaves in asymptotic regions like a transport at unit speed in the direction of the black hole. In a third part, I will study the local energy decay for these fields. First, using the existence of exponentially accurate quasi-modes, I will show a logarithmic lower bound on the local energy decay which is in accordance with the results of G. Holzegel and J. Smulevici in the Kerr-Anti-de Sitter spacetime for the Klein-Gordon fields. In order to obtain an upper bound, I will prove the existence of resonances and give some tools in order to localize them.

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#### Workshop 2016

#### “Modeling and Computation of Shocks and Interfaces”

#### Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions

#### Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

*Organizers*

#### Philippe G. LeFloch (Paris)

#### Charalambos Makridakis (Brighton)

#### Supported by the ModCompShock ITN project

#### and a project PICS CNRS

#### Dec. 6 around 1:30pm to Dec. 8 around 1pm

#### Main speakers

#### Remi Abgrall (Zurich)

#### Benjamin Boutin (Rennes)

#### Christophe Chalons (Versailles)

#### Sergey Gavrilyuk (Marseille)

#### Charalambos Makridakis (Brighton)

#### Pierangelo Marcati (L’Aquila)

#### Siddhartha Mishra (Zurich)

#### Carlos Pares (Malaga)

#### Nils Risebro (Oslo)

#### Giovanni Russo (Catania)

#### Lev Truskinovsky (Palaiseau)

#### Titles of the lectures

**Benjamin Boutin **Numerical boundary layers for linear hyperbolic IBVP and semigroup estimate

**Christophe Chalons **On the computation of non conservative products and cell averages in finite volume methods

**Makridakis Charalambos** ** **Energy/entropy consistent computational methods

**Sergey Gavrilyuk** Shock-droplet interaction via a new hyperbolic phase field model

**Pierangelo Marcati** Splash singularities for incompressible viscoelatic fluids

**Siddhartha Mishra **Statistical solutions of systems of conservation laws

**Carlos Pares** Entropy stable schemes for degenerate convection-diffusion equations

**Nils Risebro** Numerical methods for scalar conservation laws with a stochastically driven flux

**Giovanni Russo** Shock capturing schemes for all Mach number flow in gas dynamics

**Lev Truskinovsky** Solitary waves in the FPU lattice: from quasi-continuum to anti-continuum limit

#### Schedule of the workshop

**Tuesday afternoon**

2pm-2:45pm: C. Makridakis

2:45-3:30pm: C. Pares

3:30pm: coffee break

4pm-4:45pm G. Russo

**Wednesday morning**

10am-10:45am: S. Gavrilyuk

10:45am: coffee break

11:15am: C. Chalons

Noon: lunch buffet

**Wednesday afternoon**

2pm-2:45pm R. Abgrall

2:45pm-3:30pm S. Mishra

3:30am coffee break

4pm L. Truskinovsky

**Thursday morning**

9:30am-10:15am N. Risebro

10:15am coffee break

10:45am B. Boutin

11:30am P. Marcati

12:15 lunch buffet (end of the workshop)

#### Participants to the workshop

- Remi Abgrall (Zurich) remi.abgrall at math.uzh.ch
- Benjamin Boutin (Rennes) chalons at math.jussieu.fr
- Christophe Chalons (Versailles) chalons at math.jussieu.fr
- Yangyang Cao (Paris) caoyangyang0721 at 163.com
- Marco De Lorenzo (Paris) marco.de-lorenzo at edf.fr
- Christian Dickopp (Aachen) dickopp at web.de
- Alain Forestier (Saclay) alain.forestier at cea.fr
- Sergey Gavrilyuk (Marseille) sergey.gavrilyuk at univ-amu.fr
- Maren Hantke (Magdeburg) maren.hantke at ovgu.de
- David Iampetro (Marseille) david.iampietro at edf.fr
- Philippe G. LeFloch (Paris) contact philippelefloch.org
- Charalambos Makridakis (Brighton) C.Makridakis at sussex.ac.uk
- Pierangelo Marcati (L’Aquila) pierangelo.marcati at gssi.infn.it
- Christoph Matern (Magdeburg) christoph.matern at ovgu.de
- Siddhartha Mishra (Zurich) siddhartha.mishra at sam.math.ethz.ch
- Roberto Molina (Paris) rmolina.sep at gmail.com
- Hieu Nguyen (Aachen) nguyen at instmath.rwth-aachen.de
- Carlos Pares (Malaga) pares at anamat.cie.uma.es
- Yohan Penel (Paris) penel at ann.jussieu.fr
- Chaoyu Quan (Paris) quanchaoyu at gmail.com
- Pierre-Arnaud Raviart (Paris) pa at raviart.com
- Nils Risebro (Oslo) nilshr at math.uio.no
- Giovanni Russo (Catania) russo at dmi.unict.it
- Lev Truskinovsky (Palaiseau) trusk at lms.polytechnique.fr
- Shugo Yasuda (Hyogo) yasuda at sim.u-hyogo.ac.jp
- Dimitrios Zacharenakis (Stuttgart) zachards at mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de

#### Other practical informations

The workshop will take place in the main lecture room 309 of the Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, which is located in the building 15-16.

Address: 4 Place Jussieu, 75258 Paris. Subway station: Jussieu.

List of hotels in the vicinity of the university

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*Organizers*

#### Philippe G. LeFloch (Paris)

#### Jérémie Szeftel (Paris)

#### Ghani Zeghib (Lyon)

**ANR Project**

#### “Mathematical General Relativity. Analysis and geometry of spacetimes with low regularity”

**Wednesday June 17, 2015**

### Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

#### Lecture room 15/25-326

**11h Emmanuel Hebey (Cergy-Pontoise) **Systèmes de Kirchhoff critiques stationnaires sur des variétés compactes

**14h Lydia Bieri (Ann Arbor) **Gravitational radiation and two types of memory

**Abstract. **We are believed to live on the verge of detection of gravitational waves, which are predicted by General Relativity. In order to understand gravitational radiation, we have to investigate analytic and geometric properties of corresponding solutions to the Einstein equations. Gravitational waves leave a footprint in the spacetime regions they pass, changing the manifold – and therefore displacing test masses – permanently. This is known as the memory effect. It has been believed that for the Einstein equations, being nonlinear, there exists one such effect with a small `linear’ and a large `nonlinear’ part. In this talk, I present some of my joint work with D. Garfinkle showing that these are in fact two different effects.

###### _____________________________**_______________****_________________________________________****_______________**_________

**_________________________________________**

*Organizers*

#### Philippe G. LeFloch (Paris)

#### Jérémie Szeftel (Paris)

#### Ghani Zeghib (Lyon)

**ANR Project**

#### “Mathematical General Relativity. Analysis and geometry of spacetimes with low regularity”

**Wednesday May 27, 2015**

### Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

#### Lecture room 15-25–326

**14h Thierry Barbot (Avignon) **Surfaces polygonales fuchsiennes et espace de Teichmüller décoré

**Abstract. **Dans l’article “Fuchsian polyhedra in Lorentzian space-forms, Mathematische Annalen 350, 2, pp. 417-453, 2011″, F. Fillastre a montré que toute métrique euclidienne avec singularités coniques d’angles > 2 pi sur une surface compacte se réalise de manière unique comme une surface de Cauchy polygonale dans un espace-temps globalement hyperbolique localement plat radial (i.e. dont le groupe d’holonomie fixe un point de l’espace de Minkowski). Dans cet exposé, j’évoquerai le travail de L. Brunswic dans son travail de thèse sous ma direction, qui vise à reprouver ce résultat et à l’étendre au cas des surfaces polygonales dans un espace-temps localement plat mais admettant des particules massives. Le but est de montrer qu’il y a encore existence et unicité une fois prescrit la masse des particules massives (le cas régulier montré par Fillastre correspondant au cas où l’angle singulier des particules massives est 2pi). Je montrerai aussi que la situation étudiée par R. Penner dans l’article “The Decorated Teichmϋller Space of Punctured Surfaces, Commun. Math. Phys. 113, 299-339 (1987)” est un cas limite de la situation étudiée par Brunswic, et correspond au cas où les particules sont d’angle conique nul. Je montrerai aussi comment répondre positivement à la question dans le cas où il n’y a qu’une singularité.

**15h30 Andrea Seppi (Pavia) **Convex surfaces in (2+1)-dimensional Minkowski space

**Abstract. **It is known that the hyperbolic plane admits an isometric embedding into Minkowski space; in 1983 Hanu and Nomizu first observed the existence of non-equivalent isometric embeddings, thus showing a relevant difference with the Euclidean case. In this talk, I will introduce some natural properties of a convex surface in Minkowski space, concerning causality and asymptotic behavior. I will then explain some new results (jointly with Francesco Bonsante) on the classification of constant curvature surfaces with bounded principal curvatures and on the solvability of Minkowski problem in (2+1)-dimensional Minkowski space. If time permits, I will give the main ideas of the proof and especially the relation to some type of Monge-Ampere equations.